Processing and storage of mushrooms: methods of salting, pickling for the winter, cooking and frying at home

Mushrooms are a perishable product. For this reason, storing mushrooms raw for a long time is not advisable - it is strongly recommended to process mushrooms immediately on the day of collection or purchase.

In this article, you will get advice on how to pickle mushrooms and marinate mushrooms for the winter. You will also learn how to store frozen mushrooms and at what temperature. In addition, your attention will be offered tips on how to boil mushrooms, fry and in what other ways you can process mushrooms at home.

Methods for harvesting and processing mushrooms

Primary processing of mushrooms consists of several stages. First, they must be cleaned of debris, cut off the legs or places damaged by insects. To prevent the mushrooms from turning black, it is better to use stainless steel knives.

The main methods of processing mushrooms are drying, pickling, salting and canning. They are based on creating conditions under which microbes cannot develop, and products retain their nutritional and taste qualities.

Cleaning and processing mushrooms is not the most exciting, but necessary occupation: it is heating that destructively affects microbes. But after finishing this stage, the harvesting and processing of mushrooms will seem to you not so laborious.

Some microbes bend around at 60 ° C, others at 60-100 ° C. However, there are bacteria that remain viable even at temperatures above 100 ° C. Later, under normal temperature conditions, they begin to develop and multiply. Canning is impossible without the use of acetic or citric acid, since both suppress the vital activity of microbes. True, yeast and mold reproduce well in an acidic environment. Their appearance is inevitable when fermenting and salting foods. But this mold does not harm humans, it can simply be washed or collected.

Pathogens of botulism are especially dangerous in canned food. They live only in an airless space, and, as you know, there is no oxygen in cans. In such conditions, toxins (poison) are produced, which cause severe poisoning, fraught with death. The victim must be urgently taken to the hospital. As a first aid, you can rinse the stomach with a 5% solution of baking soda, give a laxative, put an enema. Canned food poisoned by botulism toxin is no different from benign ones, so try not to buy salted or pickled mushrooms on the market. Since the botulinus bacterium lives in the soil, the harvested mushrooms must be thoroughly washed, cleaned and not to use stale and damaged fruit bodies. Only in this case you can be sure that all mushrooms are edible, carefully processed, salted or pickled in compliance with preventive measures, stored in proper conditions and with systematic care (removing mold, if necessary, digesting marinades, etc.).

Mushroom poisoning is considered one of the most dangerous food poisoning and can lead to the death of the victim, so do not take unknown and dubious mushrooms - they can be dangerous. At the first sign of poisoning (headache, stomach pain, nausea, turning into uncontrolled vomiting), immediately call a doctor or ambulance. In such cases, the preservation of health and life often depends on how quickly the patient receives medical attention. It is most effective in the first 24 hours after eating poisonous mushrooms.

Hot and cold ways to pickle mushrooms

For this method of storing mushrooms, lamellar mushrooms are most often taken, even with a bitter taste: valui, milk mushrooms, mushrooms, volnushki, ryadovki, talkers, russula.They are usually salted in wooden barrels, enameled and glass containers. When pickling and pickling mushrooms, dishes must be clean and free of any foreign odors. Mushrooms should not be salted in earthenware and galvanized tin dishes, as the coating can come into contact with the brine and poison the mushrooms.

There are hot and cold methods for pickling mushrooms. The difference between the cold method is that the mushrooms are not boiled before salting. They are cleaned and washed, and mushrooms with a pungent taste, such as milk mushrooms or valui, are soaked in salted water for one to three days.

With the cold method of salting mushrooms, salt must be poured onto the bottom of the container, then a layer of mushrooms (6-8 cm), again salt, again a layer of mushrooms, and so on until the dishes are filled. 1 kg of mushrooms usually takes 40-60 g of salt. High quality mushrooms are most often salted without any additives in order to preserve their special taste and aroma. But you can add garlic, pepper, dill, bay leaves, cherry or black currant leaves. Salted mushrooms are pressed from above with a special wooden circle, on which oppression is placed. Under it, the mushrooms settle and let the juice in a couple of days. Under no circumstances should you use lime stones, bricks or metal objects for oppression.

The hot method of salting is suitable for mushrooms with a bitter taste: milky, volnushki, valui and all types of mushrooms. The washed and peeled mushrooms are boiled in slightly salted water for about 30 minutes or blanched for 5-15 minutes, then they are thrown back in a colander and allowed to dry. Next, the container is filled with mushrooms in the same way as in the cold method. Hot salted mushrooms can be eaten in a couple of weeks.

Fragrant spices and herbs will help emphasize the taste and smell of harvested mushrooms.

Mushroom storage method: homemade pickling

For home pickling of mushrooms, they usually use the gifts of the forest with a higher taste than for pickling. For this storage method, it is necessary to select mushrooms with a cap diameter of no more than 15-35 mm. They need to be cleaned, trimmed, rinsed thoroughly with cold water and allowed to drain in a colander.

For pickling 1 kg of mushrooms, you will need 0.5 liters of water, 50 g of 30% acetic acid, 10 peppercorns, 2 bay leaves and about 10 g of salt. Optionally, you can add cloves, cinnamon or nutmeg to the marinade. Pour acid into the water, put all the spices and bring to a boil. Boil the mushrooms for 5 minutes in salted water, remove with a slotted spoon and let the water drain. After that, boil for a few minutes in the marinade, transfer to prepared containers and close immediately.

In principle, mushrooms can be boiled directly in the marinade. To do this, for 1 kg of mushrooms, you need to take 1/3 cup of water, 2/3 cup of vinegar and 1 tbsp. l. salt. The marinade should be brought to a boil and peeled and washed mushrooms should be put in it. Cook, depending on the type: champignons for about 20 minutes, oyster mushrooms - about 30 minutes. The foam during cooking should be removed with a slotted spoon, and when it stops appearing, put 1 tsp in the boiling marinade. sugar, 2 bay leaves, 5-6 peppercorns, cloves, a little cinnamon and citric acid.

How much to store frozen mushrooms for blanks

For storage, mushrooms can simply be frozen, then they will retain all the valuable components. After freezing, mushrooms can be used for various preparations. You can freeze not only fresh, but also fried or boiled mushrooms.

After defrosting, they are used to make soups, sauces, side dishes for meat and fish dishes, etc.

Braised and fried mushrooms in frozen form can be stored for no more than three months, and boiled mushrooms can lie in the freezer at a temperature of -18 ° C for a whole year.

Freezing makes mushrooms available at any time of the year.

Frying mushrooms: how to fry mushrooms

Many people consider wild mushrooms fried with potatoes to be a real delicacy. But often the inhabitants of the metropolis cannot afford a trip to the forest, so they buy the usual mushrooms for frying mushrooms.True, in large stores you can increasingly find both porcini mushrooms and chanterelles. There is one mistake that many housewives make. Usually, mushrooms are simply cut and laid out in a preheated pan. But you will feel a huge difference if you boil them in slightly salted water for a little (just a few minutes).

Take all possible precautions before frying your own mushrooms from the forest. Rinse the mushrooms thoroughly. Do not leave half-cooked mushrooms (especially champignons) for a long time in the refrigerator (not in the freezer!), As they shrivel quickly.

Frying mushrooms is one of the easiest and most popular cooking methods.

How and how much to cook mushrooms: mushroom boiling time

Usually, mushrooms are boiled either to prepare them for pickling or as a main ingredient in mushroom soups. In any case, a few basic rules should be strictly followed. How much to cook mushrooms depends on their variety.

Honey mushrooms, when boiling, form a gray foam on the surface of the water, which should be removed. Do not cook these mushrooms for more than 1 hour, as their taste is noticeably lost. During cooking, be sure to change the water 1-2 times.

Boiling time for butter - no more than 25-30 minutes and always in slightly salted water.

Champignons are cooked very quickly - 8-10 minutes; overcooked become "rubbery".

Porcini mushrooms are boiled, depending on age, 25-35 minutes, while the resulting foam should be constantly removed.

It is enough to cook chanterelles for 15 minutes only (!) In an enamel bowl. Add a little salt to the water and skim off the foam all the time. Resourceful housewives came up with an alternative method of cooking - soaking chanterelles in milk for 1 hour.

Failure to follow the rules of cooking mushrooms can ruin them.

Boletus boletuses are boiled for no more than 15-20 minutes, while constantly removing the foam, and before cooking, remove the film from the caps, otherwise the mushroom broth or the mushrooms themselves will taste bitter. Boletus mushrooms are pre-washed in running cold water. The optimal cooking time is 40-45 minutes.

The morels are first soaked for about 1 hour and then boiled for 20 minutes in salted water.

Shiitake is cooked for only 3-4 minutes.

The talkers are boiled in salted water for about 25 minutes. After boiling, reduce the heat as much as possible.

Rows, kids and raincoats, depending on age, are boiled for 15-20 minutes in salted water. Before that, they must be thoroughly cleaned of adhering debris and rinsed in running water. Never put frozen mushrooms in boiling water - this greatly affects their taste. Be patient and wait until the product is completely thawed. Dried mushrooms should also not be immediately dipped in boiling water. Soak them in cold water for 1-1.5 hours and then cook.

Cooking is an intermediate step before pickling and frying mushrooms.